Sample essay on ethical issues in access to water

Wednesday, 06 May 2015.

The study aims to increase our understanding of the ethical problems associated with water management, as it has become a controversial topic in the contemporary world. This work also extends to factors influencing environmental ethics, taking into account the interaction of ethics and the economy. This work is based on some considerations relating to water ethics, as it continues to continuously discuss both policies and practices in water resource management. The presentation of ethical concepts is directly related to the management of water resources and therefore to them. It helps in the decision-making process, which can be challenging, as it involves different scientific domains and requires that different water sources, including supply and demand, be addressed. The paper elaborates on some viable or applicable ethical principles to address moral dilemmas related to water resource management. The view was expressed that, in contrast to the assessment of ethical problems of water management, more efforts should be made to promote better ethical practices with some relevant principles, which were theories of human dignity and the right to water. After that, the work concludes that ethics is both the basis and the normative content of certain decisions, as it contains a reason and an explanation. It must be recognized that even though access to water is crucial, it is sometimes costly, but the procedures used in determining the price of water must meet and match the cost of operation and maintenance. This principle also requires the impartial explanation of the reports on the state of water resources and their availability, as well as the facilitation of access to such reports to the public. Measures, standards and indicators should be established not only for human health but also for the protection of global ecosystems, wetlands and habitats and species

The issue of water resources management has become one of the most debated issues related to global resources. It is clear that the water crisis in the world today is the result of climate change, rapid industrialization, urbanization, permanent population growth and the unsustainable use of water resources. For example, the Asian Development Bank explains the misuse of water resources as one of the most significant explanations for the “unprecedented” water crisis in Asian developing countries. The Asian Development Bank also notes that future water crises will not occur as a result of real water scarcity, as has been predicted by many organizations, individuals and institutions at present. Instead, the major contribution will be the continued neglect of good wastewater management practices

For example, problems such as the rise in water prices, the increase in water tariffs due to unpaid water bills and the location of prepaid water meters, suggest that existing reform processes based on economic values conflict with existing ethical and moral values with regard to water (Gleick 1999). Moreover, scarcity and competition increase pressure to obtain water from any available source, regardless of the long-term environmental impacts that may even affect water sources. Water and transit markets have been popularized in policy proposals to meet consumer demand. As a result, water has become conceptually and politically dealized from its place of origin, in particular watersheds, ecosystems and landscapes, with some attempts to protect ecological functions that have been disrupted

These management practices should provide a consistent, coherent and flexible supply of water, which can provide different levels of water consumption, and maintain a stable correlation between water-related practices and related environmental impacts. However, water management (Brechin 1999) is an issue at every stage of water resource development, use and management. Such problems related to the management of water resources include:

Ethical values take different forms in different cultural groups. In Western societies, ethical constraints tend to take the form of behavioural rules that are ultimately codified in law. In non-Western societies, they may take the form of taboos or rituals that develop in the custom of social sanctions of the community. (2004)

From the above text, it can be concluded that there are serious dilemmas associated with the application of moral values at the societal level, which are the centre between the global norms and the micro-sphere of interpersonal relations (Jurome, James & Ramón 2004). While it is clear that all three levels are related to the ethical standards of water use, there is a problem with the distinction between ethical interpretation of water and religious viewpoints. For example, during the International Conference on Water and the Environment, held in Dublin in January 1992, it was agreed that water resources were economic in all competing uses and should therefore be considered as economic good (Al-Jayouti 2000). However, the Muslim Brotherhood was opposed to this proposal, as such a description of water as an economic good was very different from the Koran, which described water as the source of life and the gift of God. Jerome (James & Ramón 2004) suggested that the problem had been noticed at the beginning of the conference, and then it would be necessary to change the wording of the sentence. Six years later, the conference raised another issue with regard to the previous question, in which Muslims are convinced that water should be provided free of charge to people and not be sold for monetary value

Despite some relevant differences in the beliefs of different individuals and groups, water ethics should be considered in the context of general environmental ethics (Mary & Jocelyn 2000). It is very important to use the environmental perspective as a special and unique way of working with long-time fields in the field of moral development. This means that every person in the community should be responsible for the management of water resources, bearing in mind the importance of this resource in life and human development. The issue of upstream and downstream interdependence in the water section often poses a threat to water management, which requires an integrated approach to water resources management

This topic is constantly being discussed in various forums addressing both policies and practices in water resource management. The presentation of ethical concepts is directly related to the management of water resources and therefore remains relevant to the topic. It helps in the decision-making process, which is a complex topic in which different scientific domains are involved and requires the attention of different water sources, including supply and demand sides. In this sensitive environment, with a variety of variables, ethics are generally accused of being responsible for providing operational assistance and conceptualizing different points of view, but will continue to focus on actions, consequences or motivations that analyse the concepts of rights and obligations. Ethics is both the basis and the normative content of specific decisions, as it provides justification and explanation

The increased privatization of water and human rights in developing countries could lead to widespread unrest in most countries

The World Commission on Ethics of Science and Technology, UNESCO organized and sponsored working groups that tried to address the issue of water ethics (Jerome, James & Ramón 2004). This led to the publication of 14 essays and five case studies alleging that, rather than reassessing the ethical issues of water management, it would be better to promote the best ethical practices and principles that include:

Article 3, on human dignity and human rights, states that human dignity, human rights and freedom must be respected, and article 14 on social responsibility and health states that the promotion of health and social development for their people should be central to Governments. This applies to the ethical principle of human dignity, which is constantly emerging in many ethics reports (Craig 2009). It is also reflected in many of the reports concerning the use of water resources. A vital criterion is to strike the right balance between the interests of people, society and other non-human users of water

This is very important at all levels and should start with the local communities on a universal scale. One person should not have access to too much water resources beyond what is required, while the other has no access to water. Equality in relation to water rights and the application of policies that ensure equal amounts of clean water for human use without any extravagant water resources should be applied

Deep and infinite contact with water is first proven by biological addiction, in which our body weighs about 95% of water (Gleick 1999). Another is the social and biological connection to water, as well as other parts of the environment, in which the general themes presented in the commentaries and photographs of nature and life were water, the most important rivers and oceans with ponds, birds, fish and other animals. Most religions also use water to clean water, and all of these factors combine to confirm the frequency of water as an environmental image

There is no doubt that the uneven distribution of freshwater resources makes it difficult to access reliable freshwater resources. Legal barriers also make it difficult to access them because of legal obstacles, such as when a higher land is privately owned or managed by another country. In accordance with this principle, in the event of the need for water, the first alternative would be the use of the nearest water resources. Thus, this principle gives priority and attention to those who live closer to water when it comes to being used in comparison with those who are far away. However, it should be noted that such consideration is not a privilege, but depends only on their approval. Those who are close to the water source should use such sources with caution, bearing in mind that no pollution can be avoided

This principle indicates that people living near water sources should avoid waste and use water beyond their real needs. People should consume only the amount that satisfies their vital lives, comfort and the maintenance of the local ecosystem. This is necessary to ensure that water is not used by other communities in different regions where the required goods are not available. In addition, water can be maintained for future use, and this requires the Government to set up policies to adjust the levels between areas of good water supply and those facing water scarcity problems in order to balance water use

This principle calls for trade in stored and added water derived from the source as a product in the water market using water banks, exchanges or transfers. Such trade, however, should take into account the private right of users to use and possess water resources. In many parts of the Asia-Pacific region, water resources are treated as general properties, with the exception of those used for domestic purposes. Thus, the State grants permits that are used to promote the use of water resources

The participation of all inclusive water management approaches makes it necessary for repeated use. Because people are highly dependent on water, other water uses should not be a priority, even if they are considered equal. In addressing this issue, it is important to note that the beneficial use of water resources entails multiple use of different sectors. For example, it would be useful to build multi-purpose hydropower, which would promote irrigation and power generation rather than the use of water sources in a single system. However, if the use of hydroelectric power is affected by the extremely important human needs in the water, then the criteria for choosing profitable use should be that which will satisfy the higher water use. However, this should not be understood as implying that minorities should be sacrificed in favour of the majority in addressing human needs in water

This emphasizes that both the proposal and the allocation should be seen as scientific and ethical responsibilities. Accurate, reliable and reliable data on water sources can facilitate the monitoring of all water bodies and help establish final strategic policies that will ensure and maintain the preferred state of water resources that contributes to a healthy environment. Such data may also provide appropriate responses and response mechanisms that can be used to address negative trends and developments, such as pollution or any other issue (Orlando and Peter 2002). This principle also requires indiscriminate and clear explanations of the status of water reports, as well as the use and facilitation of public access to such reports. Measures, standards and indicators should be established not only for human health but also for the protection of global ecosystems, wetlands and habitats and species

The interests of all groups, and especially for the poor and unprivileged, should be taken into account in all policies that regulate water resources management. This can be achieved through the provision of education, open water magazines, public hearings, virtual forums and discussions. All people should be forced to participate in any event if there were any problems affecting the management of water resources. For example, many of the concerns were raised by anti-fluoridation agents, who consider it a mandatory mass drug, and the assertion that it is not easy to reach agreement from all consumers of water is desirable. On the other hand, suppliers accurately manage the exact concentration of fluoride available to the population, which suggests that if all stakeholders were involved in policy development, it would be easier for stakeholders to understand the concepts behind fluoride

Two conclusions can be made on the basis of the current situation, which today sparled serious disputes over the resources in the globe. Although today’s world is facing a water crisis, which is caused by climate change, rapid industrialization, urbanization, population growth and poor water management, the situation can be controlled or controlled (Craig 2009). Management practices should be established to facilitate the establishment of a permanent, permanent as well as a flexible water supply capacity that will ensure that the various water resources are consistent with the various water resources, in addition to maintaining a stable correlation between water use practices and related environmental impacts. Equality for water rights and the application of policies that provide equal amounts of clean water for human use without any extravagant and non-profligacy should be pursued

Moreover, even though in this sensitive environment with varied variables, the main purpose of ethics is to provide operational assistance and conceptualize different points of view, focusing on actions, consequences or motivations that analyse the concepts of rights and obligations. Ethics forms both the basis and the normative content of the decision-making process, given that it provides justification and explanation. It must be recognized that, despite the crucial importance, access to water can be appreciated. However, it is important to ensure that the procedures used in setting water prices are adequate for operating and maintenance costs. This principle also requires the impartial explanation of the reports on the state of water resources and their use, as well as the facilitation of the access of such reports to the public. Measures, standards and indicators should be developed for the protection of human health, as well as for the compensation of damage to global ecosystems, the areas and their habitats and species

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